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APA 6th Edition: Basics: Citing Paraphrased Sources

Basic examples for citing sources in APA style for undergraduates or those with little experience using APA.

Paraphrasing and Citations for Paraphrased Sources

 Citations for paraphrased information   See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 171.  When there is no identified author or with an anonymous author, see APA (6th ed.), 6.15, pp. 170-171.

Beginning of sentence:

     A study (Krankenstein, 2006) reported that empirical research was identified.
     Bass and Avolio (2008) disputed on the findings. 
     Several dissertations (Annan, 2010; Batson-George, 2008; Long, 2007) examined the issues.

     "Tech Trends" (2010) identified a number of social media applications.

Middle of sentence

     After looking into the issue, Lynch (2007) quit. 
     Several issues in the instructional design process were identified (Dick & Carey, 2002).
     Students use the Merrian Webster Dictionary (2011) to check for the accepted spelling of words in question.

End of sentence

     The report concluded that they were victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, n.d.). 
A recent poll in the Dallas Morning News found the 70% of Catholics supported state funding (Anonymous, 2011).
     The study looked at the findings of Stonebraker et al. (2009), Jones (2010), and the American Psychological Assocation (2010).

Works with no identified author or with an anonymous author  See APA (6th ed.), 6.15, pp.176-177.
When there is no author identified, use the first few words from the title of the source used. When you are using the name of articles, book chapters, and web pages in the body of your paper, put the title in quotes and capitalize the important words. For journal, book, report, or brochure titles, italicize the title and capitalize the important words.

The report condemned the practice (The Conditions of Education, 2011).
The preferred spelling of social media was used (Merrian-Webste Collegiate Dictionary, 2008).
No conclusions were reached ("Citation Analysis," 2005).
The government was at fault for the results (Anonymous, 2010).

Citing resources specific parts of a source -- chapters, tables, figures, or equations See APA p. 179, 6.19

When you want to cite a specific part of a resource, cite the specific page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in your text. Note that p. is used for page, but words like Chapter are not abreviated.

(Annan, 2009, p. 54)
(Creswell, 2007, Table 9.1 
(Johnson, 2011, Chapter 4)

When a citation appears in a parenthetical comment, use commas, not brackets, to set off the date. See APA (6th ed.), p. 179.

(see Table 1-A of National Center for Educational Statistics, 2010, for complete data)
(see Figure 2 of Barlotta, Fizer, & McDoughall, 2001, for complete data)

 Citing two resources by same author that are published in the same year:

Text citations:

         Several articles (Riggs, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c; Riggs & Zhang, 1999; Zhang, in press) address library issues in the new millenium.

The three articles by Don Riggs published in 1999 are arranged alphabetically by article title, and the letters a, b, and c are added to the date. For the other article by Riggs and Zhang published in 1999 is arranged alphebtically by the two authors' names so no letter is added after the year of publication. See also the APA Blog posting on this topic.

       Riggs, D. E. (1999a). Academic library leadership: Observations and 
                 questions. College and Research Libraries, 60(1), 6-8.                  

Riggs, D. E. (1999b). Faculty status for librarians: Force-fitting
          into an inappropriate mold or not? College and Research Libraries,
60(4), 305-306.

Riggs, D. E. (1999c). Research: Value, methods, and publishing. College
          and Research Libraries,
60(3), 208-209.

Riggs, D. E., & Zhang, S. L. (1999). Human implications of technology's
          impact on the content of library science journals. Library Trends, 47(4), 

Zhang, S. L. (in press). Human implications of technology's impact on the content of
           library science journals in the 21st century. Library Trends.

When you paraphrase, you use your own words. This is usually preferable to direct quotes because the information gets neatly in your own style of writing. It also shows that you really do understand what the author is saying. However, you must take care that you don't change the meaning. Even when you use your own words, you must still acknowledge where you got the idea from by including a text citation.

Here is an example of how the original quotation might be paraphrased:

    Original quotation:

    Language, then, like everything else, gradually transforms itself over the centuries. There is nothing surprising in this. In a world where humans grow old, tadpoles change into frogs, and milk turns into cheese, it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change, regarding alterations as due to unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance. (Aitchison, 1981, p. 16)

    The essay incorporating the paraphrasing:

    ... Many people believe that the Americanisation of the media, and what is called dumbing down, is having disastrous results on English. One answer to this is that language change is natural, so there is no reason for people to condemn it (Aitchison, 1981, p. 16). Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable ...

Use the author-date method of citation by inserting the surname of the author and the year of publication at the appropriate point in the text. Citations used in the body of your publication identify the source of information. In-text parenthetical citations are used to give credit to the authors whose ideas or thoughts are used within the document. These internal citations allow the reader to identify the source and locate the information being addressed. APA uses a system that includes the author’s last name and the year of publication. For example: (Small, 2009).  If there is a direct quote or a specific part of the work is being referred to, the page numbers are also included. For example, (Small, 2009, p. 23). Sources may include books and book chapters, journal or magazine articles, dissertations and theses, conference papers, government reports, films, websites, blogs and wikis, discussion boards, personal communications, and more.





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